Milestones in 

Environmental Preservation




Photo: Canoe sticker from the Alliance for the Lady Evelyn Wilderness, designed by Hap Wilson in early 1980s.

Canoe sticker from the Alliance for the Lady Evelyn Wilderness, designed by Hap Wilson in early 1980s.

Temagami Preservation             1901-1983   1984-1989   1990-2002   NEXT >>

1901 Temagami Forest Reserve established to protect one of eastern North America's largest pine forests for future logging.
1903 Forest reserve enlarged to 5,900 square miles, larger than today's Algonquin Park.
1914 First park proposal: from Associated Boards of Trade of Ontario

Lake Temagami Skyline Reserve created by gentleman's agreement between property owners and lumber mills with the issuance of the first pine timber licenses. This permanently preserved Lake Temagami old growth.

1937 First booming of logs on Lake Temagami.
  First logging in area of today's wilderness begins and continues in a low-impact, scattered and sporadic fashion.
1947 Second park proposal: Ontario government initiated.
1965 Red Squirrel Road reaches Red Squirrel Lake, allowing logging access that marks start of the era of clear-cutting and accelerated mechanized logging. Wilderness shrinks.
  Elk Lake Planing Mill constructed increasing demand for jack pine, which drives logging south of Elk Lake toward Temagami.
1968 Liskeard Lumber Road constructed across the North Lady Evelyn River in the Lady Evelyn-Smoothwater Wilderness.
1972 Battle for Temagami begins: Ontario government announces a study of the feasibility of a year-round resort on Maple Mountain, "Northern Ontario Place." (April) 
  Liskeard Lumber Road extended across the South Lady Evelyn River (summer).
Third park proposal: Evelyn-Smoothwater Park proposed by Ministry of Natural Resources district office.
1973 Smaller-than-proposed Lady Evelyn Wild River Park created, first remote park.

Hugh Stewart, Jamie Benidickson, Gordon Wolfe, Norman Abraham & Jack Craik found Save Maple Mountain Committee to fight the Maple Mountain Project and protect Lady Evelyn Wilderness (Aug 26). First environmental activism. 

Bear Island Indian band files legal caution notice of land claim over 10,000 square kilometers (twice the size of PEI) freezing all mining staking and development, new land sales and leases by the Crown and new development plans in the Temagami wilderness, including the Maple Mountain Project. Logging and logging roads excluded from freeze (August).
1975 Maple Mountain Project quietly shelved by Ontario in face of land cautions and environmental opposition.
1976 Gate erected on the Red Squirrel Road at Whitefish Bay, shortly after MNR takes over the private road, to stop summer public access (June 15 to Sept 15)  (spring).
1977 Alliance for the Lady Evelyn Wilderness new name for the Save Maple Mountain Committee to emphasize push for protection of the Smoothwater-Lady Evelyn wilderness area (April)
1978 Fourth park proposal: Ministry of Natural Resources' (MNR) Parks Branch proposes Lady Evelyn-Smoothwater Wilderness Park.
  The book Temagami Canoe Routes, written and illustrated by Hap Wilson, is published by Ministry of Natural Resources. It becomes enormously successfully at attracting canoeists, thereby creating more interest in its protection.
1980 MNR creates Temagami Island trails, thereby halting logging (Hap Wilson crew boss).
  Alliance for the Lady Evelyn Wilderness pushes for the Lady Evelyn-Smoothwater park creation as ministry backs away from its own, and larger, 1978 park proposal.
1981 Canoeing in the Temagami District (today's Planning Map), a canoe routes map researched and illustrated by Hap Wilson, is published by MNR, attracting more canoeists.
1983 Lady Evelyn-Smoothwater Wilderness Park created, protecting one-quarter of original 1978 park proposal area. MNR permits Liskeard Lumber Road through the park. (July)
Ministry of Natural Resources secretly promises logging industry the Red Squirrel Road extension as a tradeoff to timber allocations lost in the park creation.

Sources: Earthroots, Hap Wilson, Ministry of Natural Resources, North Bay Nugget, The Keewaydin Way by Brian Back, The Temagami Experience by Hodgins and Benedickson, Temagami Lakes Association archives,  Terry Graves, The Temiskaming Speaker, Brian Back, Timiskaming Forest Alliance, Elk Lake Planing Mill, Jim Morrison, Hap Wilson, Hugh Stewart, Temagami Times, Sierra Legal Defense Fund

Temagami Preservation             1901-1983   1984-1989   1990-2002   NEXT >>

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